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The following books have been written for those taking papers at A-level in Phiilosophy of Religion and Ethics...

int phil





This open access philosophy website is a very good online resource for those coming new to philosophy, and for students from GCSE upwards, particularly (in videos already produced) for those taking Philosophy of Religion papers.

Take a look at the website at .


Just click on any topic to get the notes...

Latest addition to this page...

I have added an article, originally published in 'Dialogue', entitled 'Can Natural Law escape Aquinas?' to augment the notes on Natural Law for keen students and the general reader. To read it, click here.

Dialogue 'Dialogue' is a really useful publication for A-Level students of Religious Studies.

To see their latest flyer, click here.



Philosophy of Religion

There is a page on the Ontological Argument, with some material taken from my Introduction to Philosophy and Ethics supplemented with further comments and reflections. Notes on Faith and Reason, serve as background to Anselm's Ontological Argument, pointing out distinctions in the relevant Latin terms in 'faith seeking unerstanding' and 'I believe in order to understand.'

I have revised and posted sets of notes on The Argument from Design, based on the relevant sections in my Introduction to Philosophy and Ethics. These are supplemented by the notes on the Anthropic Principle and Argument.

big bangHere is a short outline of the Anthropic Principle and Argument, for students looking at the Argument from Design, or issues in Religion and Science.


Language explores issues arising from Wittgenstein's Tractatus, Logical Positivism, Verification and 'Language Games' , both generally and in relation to religious language, with brief notes on 'experiencing as', 'believing in', analogy, myth and symbolism. (This page conflates my earlier notes on religious language.)

Religious Experience   What is it? Is it a natural phenomenon? What kinds of experience are called 'religious'? Is it what is experienced, or how it is experiences that makes it religious?  (These notes have been revised and now form a web page.)

Is the Philosophy of Religion a mistake? This is aslightly revised blog post of mine which asks whether the Philosophy of Religion can really get to grips with what religion is about.

religion and scienceReligion and Science - ebook

Religion and Science, originally published in the Hodder's A-level Access series, is now available free on this website. Its chapters include: Evolution and Design, Freedom and Determinism, Miracles, Scientific Explanations of Religion and much more.

Just click on the cover for more information and to go to the text of this book.


Earlier notes on Miracles are now revised and available on a single webpage.

The Cosmological Arguments gives a basic outline of Kalam Argument and the Cosmological Arguments from Aquinas. But students doing this topic should also see also the chapter on 'The Origins of the Universe' in Religion and Science.

The Problem of Evil - These notes have been revised and are now set out on a single web page, with clear section headings. and an outline of the Irenaean and Augustinian approaches, along with the Free Will Defence, a brief look at the impact of this problem on ideas of God and a note on the distinction here between philosophy and theology.


Kant's ethical theory outlines his 3 forms of the Categorical Imperative, and provides a context for them in terms of his 'Copernical Revolution' and the postulates of the pure practical reason.

Utilitarianism offers a basic set of outline notes, including Bentham, Mill, Preference Utilitariaism and an assessment of some of its problems and advantages as an ethical theory.

Natural Law Ethics   These notes give the background to the Natural Law approach to ethics, along with my comments and a rant about economics and the need for a natural law approach to ideas about society.

Meta-ethics  These notes offer a broad introduction to Meta Ethical theories, including emotivism and prescriptivism. They draw on material from An Introduction to Philosophy and Ethics.

wiphiIf you are about to start examining the Divine Command Theory, take a look at these wi-phi videos by Stephen Darwall (Yale): God and Morality Part 1 and God and Morality Part 2. They are wonderfully clear and set out the main issues.

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Welcome to the 'Notes' page!

I hope you find these notes useful for your A level work on topics in Ethics and the Philosophy of Religion.

Please keep in mind that some of them are based on lectures given a few years ago. Although the basic information and arguments remain valid, make sure you check more recent material as well. I shall be up-dating these notes from time to time, so do check back.

You may freely copy my notes for your personal use only.

If you have any questions or comments, please email me by clicking here.

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Basic texts on Philosophy and Ethics:

For the general reader, as well as students at A level and preparing for undergraduate courses....



phil of rel

For a bit of light relief, but with plenty of ideas to get you thinking, take a look at...